Search This Blog

Loading...

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Asumsi dalam Ilmu (Ontologi Filsafat Ilmu bag 3)

by dwining bintarawati


Asumsi dalam Ilmu

Waktu kecil segalanya kelihatan besar, pohon terasa begitu tinggi, orang-orang tampak seperti raksasa Pandangan itu berubah setelah kita berangkat dewasa, dunia ternyata tidak sebesar yang kita kira, wujud yang penuh dengan misteri ternyata hanya begitu saja. Kesemestaan pun menciut, bahkan dunia bisa sebesar daun kelor, bagi orang yang putus asa.
Katakanlah kita sekarang sedang mempelajari ilmu ukur bidang datar (planimetri). Dengan ilmu itu kita membuat kontruksi kayu bagi atap rumah kita. Sekarang dalam bidang datar yang sama bayangkan para amuba mau bikin rumah juga. Bagi amuba bidang datar itu tidak rata dan mulus melainkan bergelombang, penuh dengan lekukan yang kurang mempesona. Permukaan yang rata berubah menjadi kumpulan berjuta kurva.

Asumsi dan Skala Observasi
Mengapa terdapat perbedaan pandangan yang nyata terhadap obyek yang begitu kongkret sperti sebuah bidang? Ahli fisika Swiss Charles-Eugene Guye menyimpulkan gejala itu diciptakan oleh skala observasi. Bagi skala observasi anak kecil pohon-pohon natal itu begitu gigantik, sedangkan bagi skala observasi amuba, bidang datar ini merupakan daerah pemukiman yang berbukit-bukit.
Jadi secara mutlak sebenarnya tak ada yang tahu seperti apa sebenarnya bidang datar itu. hanya Tuhan yang tahu! Secara filsafati mungkin ini merupakan masalah besar namun bagi ilmu masalah ini didekati secara praktis. Seperti disebutkan terdahulu ilmu sekadar merupakan pengetahuan yang mempunyai kegunaan praktis yang dapat membantu kehidupan manusia secara pragmatis. Dengan demikian maka untuk tujuan membangun atap rumah, sekiranya kita asumsikan bahwa permukaan papan itu adalah bidang datar, maka secara pragmatis hal ini dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.

Asumsi dalam Matematika dan Ilmu Alam
Marilah kita lihat ilmu yang termasuk paling maju dibandingkan dengan ilmu-ilmu lainnya yakni fisika. Fisika merupakan ilmu teoretis yang dibangun di atas sistem penalaran deduktif yang meyakinkan serta pembuktian induktif yang sangat mengesankan. Namun sering dilupakan orang bahwa fisika pun belum merupakan suatu konsep yang utuh. Artinya fisika belum merupakan pengetahuan ilmiah yang tersusun secara sistemik, sistematik, konsisten, dan analitik berdasarkan pernyataan-pernyataan ilmiah yang disepakati bersama. Di mana terdapat celah-celah perbedaan dalam fisika? Perbedaannya justru terletak dalam fondasi di mana dibangun teori ilmiah di atasnya yakni dalam asumsi tentang dunia fisiknya.




Dalam analisis secara mekanistik maka terdapat empat komponen analisis utama yakni zat, gerak, ruang, dan waktu. Newton dalam bukunya Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1686) berasumsi bahwa keempat komponen ini bersifat absolut. Zat bersifat absolut dan dengan demikian berbeda secara substantif dengan energi. Einstein, berlainan dengan Newton, dalam The Special Theory of Relativity (1905) berasumsi bahwa keempat komponen itu bersifat relatif. Tidak mungkin kita mengukur gerak secara absolut, kata Einstein. Bahkan zat sendiri itu pun tidak mutlak, hanya bentuk lain dari energi, dengan rumus yang termasyhur :
E = mc2
Sekiranya ilmu mencari teori-teori ilmiah yang secara praktis, umpamanya dapat kita pakai untuk membangun rumah maka mekanika klasik dari Newton sudah jauh dari cukup. Demikian juga halnya dengan ilmu ukur yang kita pakai untuk pengukuran dalam mekanika klasik yakni ilmu ukur Euclid. Ilmu ukur yang dikembangkan oleh euclid (330-275 S.M) kurang lebih dua ribu tahun yang lalu itu ternyata sampai sekarang masih memenuhi syarat. Namun sekiranya dalam kurun yang ditandai krisis energi ini, kita ingin berpaling dari sumber energi konvensional yakni air, angin, panas (bumi dan matahari) serta fosil kepada energi nuklir, maka tentu saja kita harus berpaling kepada teori relativitas Einstein; sebab menurut teori ini kebutuhan listrik dunia selama sebulan dapat dipenuhi hanya dengan konversi 5 kg zat. Untuk analisis keempat komponen yang bersifat relatif ini maka ilmu ukur Euclid tidak lagi memenuhi syarat dan kita berpaling kepada ilmu ukur non-Euclid yang dikembangkan oleh Lobacevskii (1773-1856), Bolyai (1802-1860) dan Riemann (1823-1866).

Jadi di sini kita mengadakan asumsi lagi bahwa untuk membangun rumah, ilmu ukur Euclid dianggap memenuhi syarat untuk dipergunakan. Sedangkan bagi amuba yang harus membangun rumah rumah pada permukaan yang bergelombang, hal ini tidak demikian. Sifat serta bentuk ruang-waktu sangat berbeda dengan ilmu ukur yang diajarkan Euclides. Sehingga sebaiknya mereka memakai ilmu ukur ruang-waktu yakni ilmu ukur non-Euclid (non-eucledian geometry) .

Pada awalnya kausalitas dalam ilmu-ilmu alam menggunakan asumsi determinisme. Namun asumsi ini goyang ketika MaxPlanck pada tahun 1900 menemukan teori Quantum. Teori ini menyatakan bahwa radiasi yang dikeluarkan materi tidak berlangsung secara konstan namun terpisah-pisah yang dinamakan kuanta. Fisika quantum menunjukkan adanya partikel-partikel yang melanggar logika hukum fisika dan bergerak secara tak terduga
Selanjutnya Indeterministik dalam gejala fisik ini muncul dengan pemenuhan Niels Bohr dalam Prinsip Komplementer (Principle of Complementary) yang dipublikasikan pada tahun 1913. Prinsip komplementer ini menyatakan bahwa elektron bisa berupa gelombang cahaya dan bisa juga berupa partikel tergantung dari konteksnya. Masalah ini yang menggoyahkan sensi-sendi fisika ditambah lagi dengan penemuan Prinsip Indeterministik (Principle of Indeterminancy) oleh Werner Heisenberg pada tahun 1927. Heisenberg menyatakan bahwa untuk pasangan besaran tertentu yang disebut conjugate magnitude pada prinsipnya tidak mungkin mengukur kedua besaran tersebut pada waktu yang sama dengan ketelitian yang tinggi. Prinsip Indeterministik ini, kata William Barret, menunjukkan bahwa terdapat limit dalam kemampuan manusia untuk mengetahui dan meramalkan gejala-gejala fisik.

Asumsi Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial
Masalah asumsi ini menjadi lebih rumit lagi kalau kita berbicara tentang ilmu-ilmu sosial. Masing-masing ilmu sosial mempunya berbagai asumsi mengenai manusia.
Siapa sebenarnya manusia? Jawabnya tergantung kepada situasinya : dalam kegiatan ekonomis maka dia makhluk ekonomi, dalam politik maka dia political animal, dalam pendidikan dia homo educandum. Dan kotak-kotak manusia makin lama makin banyak dan makin sempit.
Apakah kita perlu membuat kotak-kotak ini dan memberikan pembatasan dalam bentuk asumsi yang kian sempit ? Sekiranya ilmu ingin mendapatkan pengetahuan yang bersifat analitis, yang mampu menjelaskan berbagai kaitan dalam gejala yang tertangguk dalam pengalaman manusia, maka pembatasan ini adalah perlu. Suatu permasalahan kehidupan manusia tidak bisa dianalisis secara cermat dan seksama hanya oleh satu disiplin keilmuan saja. Masalah yang rumit ini, seperti juga rumitnya kehidupan yang dihadapi manusia, harus dilihat sepotong-sepotong dan selangkah demi selangkah. Berbagai disiplin keilmuan, dengan asumsinya masing-masing tentang manusia, mencoba mendekati permasalahan itu dari berbagai segi : psikologis, sosiologis, hiburan, pertamanan. Ilmu-ilmu ini bersifat otonom dalam bidang pengkajiannya masing-masing dan “berfederasi” dalam suatu pendekatan multidisipliner. (jadi buka “fusi” dengan penggabungan asumsi yang kacau balau).
Hal – hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam pengembangan asumsi
1. Asumsi ini harus relevan dengan bidang dan tujuan pengkajian disipin keilmuan.
Asumsi ini harus operasional dan merupakan dasar bagi pengkajian teoretis.. Asumsi manusia dalam administrasi yang bersifat operasional adalah makhluk ekonomis, makhluk sosial, makhluk aktualisasi diri atau makhluk yang kompleks. Berdasarkan asumsi-asumsi ini maka dapat dikembangkan berbagai model, strategi, dan praktek administrasi.
2. Kedua, asumsi ini harus disimpulkan dari ‘keadaan sebagaimana adanya’ bukan ‘bagaimana keadaan yang seharusnya’.
Sekiranya dalam kegiatan ekonomis maka manusia yang berperan adalah manusia ‘yang mencari keuntungan sebesar-besarnya dengan pengorbanan sekecil-kecilnya’ maka itu sajalah yang kita jadikan sebagai pegangan tidak usah ditambah dengan sebaiknya begini, atau seharusnya begitu. Sekiranya asumsi semacam ini dipakai dalam penyusunan kebijaksanaan (policy), atau strategi, serta penjabaran peraturan alinnya, maka hal ini bisa saja dilakukan, asalkan semua itu membantu kita dalam menganalisis permasalahan. Namun penetapan asumsi yang berdasarkan keadaan yang seharusnya ini seyogyanya tidak dilakukan dalam analisis teori keilmuan sebab metafisika keilmuan berdasarkan kenyataan sesungguhnya sebagaimana adanya.
Seseorang ilmuwan harus benar-benar mengenal asumsi yang dipergunakan dalam analisis keilmuannya, sebab mempergunakan asumsi yang berbeda, maka berarti berbeda pula konsep pemikiran yang dipergunakan. Sesuatu yang belum tersurat (atau terucap) dianggap belum diketahui atau belum mendapat kesamaan pendapat.


Batas Penjelajahan Ilmu
Apakah batas yang merupakan lingkup penjelajahan ilmu? Apakah yang menjadi karakteristik obyek ontologis ilmu yang membedakan ilmu dari pengetahuan-pengetahuan yang lainnya? Jawab dari semua pertanyaan itu adalah sangat sederhana : ilmu memulai penjelajahannnya pada pengalaman manusia dan berhenti di batas pengalaman manusia. Apakah ilmu mempelajari hal ihwal surga dan neraka? Jawabnya adalah tidak; sebab surga dan neraka berada di luar jangkauan pengalaman manusia. Baik hal-hal yang terjadi sebelum hidup kita, maupun apa-apa yang terjadi sesudah kematian kita, semua itu berada di luar penjelajahan ilmu.
Mengapa ilmu hanya membatasi daripada hal-hal yang berbeda dalam batas pengalaman kita? jawabnya terletak pada fungsi ilmu itu sendiri dalam kehidupan manusia: yakni sebagai alat pembantu manusia dalam menanggulangi masalah-masalah yang dihadapinya sehari-hari. Persoalan mengenai hari kemudian tidak akan kita nyatakan kepada ilmu, melainkan kepada agama, sebab agamalah pengetahuan yang mengkaji masalah-masalah seperti itu.
Ilmu membatasi lingkup penjelajahannya pada batas pengalaman manusia juga disebabkan metode yang dipergunakan dalam menyusun yang telah teruji kebenarannya secara empiris. Sekiranya ilmu memasukkan daerah di luar batas pengalaman empirisnya, bagaimana kita melakukan pembuktian secara metodologis? bukankah hal ini merupakan suatu kontradiksi yang menghilangkan keahlian metode ilmiah?
Kalau begitu maka sempit sekali batas jelajahan ilmu, kata seorang, Cuma sepotong dari sekian permasalahan kehidupan. Memang demikian, jawab filsuf ilmu, bahkan dalam batas pengalaman manusia pun, ilmu hanya berwenang dalam menentukan benar atau salahnya suatu pernyataan. Tentang baik dan buruk, semua (termasuk ilmu) berpaling kepada sumber-sumber moral; tentang indah dan jelek, semua (termasuk ilmu) berpaling kepada pengkajian estetik. Ilmu tanpa (bimbingan moral) agama adalah buta, demikian kata Einstein.
Mengenal batas-batas kapling kita ini, di samping menunjukkan kematangan keilmuan dan profesional kita, juga dimaksudkan agar kita mengenal tetangga-tetangga kita. Dengan makin sempitnya daerah penjelajahan suatu bidang keilmuan maka sering sekali diperlukan “pandangan” dari disiplin-disiplin lain. Saling pandang-memandang ini, atau dalam bahasa protokolnya pendekatan multi-disipliner, membutuhkan pengetahuan tentang tetangga-tetangga yang berdekatan. Artinya harus jelas bagi semua: di mana disiplin seseorang berhenti dan di mana disiplin orang lain mulai. Tanpa kejelasan batas-batas ini maka pendekatan multidisipliner tidak akan bersifat konstruktif melainkan berubah menjadi sengketa kapling (yang sering terjadi akhir-akhir ini).
Apalagi kalau masalah kapling ini dikaitkan dengan asumsi-asumsi yang dipakai oleh masing-masing disiplin. Sekiranya “x mengasumsikan y” pada kapling orang lain, di mana dalam kapling tersebut berlaku “y mengasumsikan x”, kan semuanya jadi terbalik, bukan? Salah-salah sengketa kapling ini berubah menjadi sengketa asumsi, dimana telah diketahui dalam pembahasan terdahulu, sengketa seperti itu adalah kaliber Newton vs Einstein.

Cabang-cabang ilmu
Ilmu berkembang dengan sangat pesat dan demikian juga jumlah cabang-cabangnya. Hasrat untuk menspesialisasikan diri pada satu bidang telaahan yang memungkinkan analisis yang makin cermat dan saksama menyebabkan obyek forma (objek ontologis) dari disiplin keilmuan menjadi kian terbatas. Diperkirakan sekarang ini terdapat sekitar sekitar 650 cabang keilmuan yang kebanyakan belum dikenal oleh orang-orang awam.
Pada dasarnya cabang-cabang ilmu tersebut berkembang dari dua cabang utama yakni filsafat alam yang kemudian menjadi rumpun ilmu-ilmu alam (the natural sciences) dan filsafat moral yang kemudian berkembang ke dalam cabang ilmu-ilmu sosial (the social sciences). Ilmu-ilmu alam membagi diri kepada dua kelompok lagi yakni ilmu alam (physical sciences) dan ilmu hayat (the biological sciences). Ilmu alam bertujuan mempelajari zat yang membentuk alam semesta sedangkan alam kemudian bercabang lagi menjadi fisika (mempelajari massa dan energi), kimia (mempelajari substansi zat), astronomi (mempelajari benda-benda langit) dan ilmu bumi (atau the earth science yang mempelajari bumi kita ini).
Tiap-tiap cabang kemudian membikin ranting-ranting baru seperti fisika berkembang menjadi mekanika,hidrodinamika, bunyi, cahaya, panas, kelistrikan dan magnetisme, fisika nuklir dan kimia fisik. Sampai tahap ini maka kelompok ilmu ini termasuk ke dalam ilmu-ilmu murni. Ilmu-ilmu murni kemudian berkembang menjadi ilmu-ilmu terapan seperti contoh di bawah ini :

ILMU MURNI ILMU TERAPAN
Mekanika Mekanika Teknik
Hidrodinamika Teknik Aeronautikal/Teknik & Desain Kapal
Bunyi Teknik Akustik
Cahaya & Optik Teknik Iluminasi
Kelistrikan Teknik Elektronik/
Magnetisme Teknik Kelistrikan
Fisika Nuklir Teknik Nuklir
Cabang-cabang ini berkembang menjadi banyak sekali; kimia saja, umpamanya, mempunyai sekitar 150 disiplin.
Ilmu-ilmu sosial berkembang agak lambat dibandingkan dengan ilmu-ilmu alam. Pada pokoknya terdapat cabang utama ilmu-ilmu sosial yakni antropologi (mempelajari manusia dalam perspektif waktu dan tempat), psikologi (mempelajari proses mental dan kelakuan manusia), ekonomi (mempelajari manusia dalam memenuhi kebutuhan kehidupannya lewat proses pertukaran), sosiologi (mempelajari sistem dan proses dalam kehidupan manusia berpemerintahan dan bernegara).
Cabang utama ilmu-ilmu sosial ini kemudian mempunyai cabang-cabang lagi seperti umpamanya antropologi terpecah menjadi lima yakni arkeologi, antropologi fisik, etnologi, dan antropologi sosial/kultural. Dari ilmu-ilmu tersebut di atas yang dapat kita golongkan ke dalam ilmu murni meskipun tidak sepenuhnya, berkembang ilmu sosial terapan yang merupakan aplikasi berbagai konsep dari ilmu-ilmu sosial murni kepada suatu bidang telaahan sosial tertentu. Pendidikan, umpamanya merupakan ilmu sosial terapan yang mengaplikasikan konsep-konsep dari psikologi, antropologi, dan sosiologi. Demikian juga manajemen menerapkan konsep psikologi, ekonomi, antropologi, dan sosiologi.
Disamping ilmu-ilmu alam dan ilmu sosial, pengetahuan mencakup juga humaniora dan matematika. Humaniora terdiri dari seni, filsafat, agama, bahasa, dan sejarah. Sejarah kadang-kadang dimasukkan juga kedalam ilmu-ilmu sosial dan merupakan kontroversi yang berkepanjangan apakah sejarah itu ilmu ataukah humaniora. Keberatan belakangan mengenai dimasukkannya sejarah ke dalam kelompok ilmu-ilmu sosial terletak pada penggunaan data-data sejarah yang sering kali merupakan penuturan orang.
Matematika bukan merupakan ilmu, melainkan cara berpikir deduktif. Matematika merupakan sarana berpikir yang penting sekali dalam kegiatan berbagai disiplin keilmuan. Termasuk kepada kelompok pengetahuan yang sudah tua umurnya dan paling pertama berkembang.


DAFTAR PUSTAKA


Kattsoff, Louis O. Pengantar Filsafat, penerjemah Seojono Soemargono ,Tiara Wacana, Yogyakarta 1995.
Suriasumantri, Jujun, Filsafat Ilmu: Sebuah Pengantar Populer, PT Pancaraintan Indahgraha, Jakarta, 2007
Suriasumantri Jujun (editor), Ilmu dalam Perspektif, PT. Gramedia, Jakarta, 2007.
__________________________, Pedoman Penulisan Tesis dan Disertasi, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 2010.
_____________________. Menguak Cakrawala Keilmuan. 2010. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 2010

122 comments:

  1. mumet untuk memahaminya.. :D

    ReplyDelete
  2. Woah! I'm really digging the template/theme of this website. It's simple, yet effective.
    A lot of times it's very difficult to get that "perfect balance" between user friendliness and appearance. I must say you've done a great job with this.
    Also, the blog loads super fast for me on Internet explorer.
    Outstanding Blog!
    Here is my blog post ; canada goose jacket sizes

    ReplyDelete
  3. Hey there! I simply wish to offer you a huge thumbs up for the great
    info you have right here on this post. I am returning to your blog for more soon.
    Here is my homepage : ebaltimoreravensjerseys.com

    ReplyDelete
  4. I drop a comment whenever I like a post on a site or if I have something to add to the conversation.

    Usually it is caused by the sincerness communicated in the article I browsed.
    And after this post "Asumsi dalam Ilmu (Ontologi Filsafat Ilmu bag 3)".
    I was actually excited enough to post a comment :-P I actually do have a couple of questions for you if you usually
    do not mind. Is it simply me or does it look as if like some of the comments appear like
    they are left by brain dead visitors? :-P And, if you are writing at additional social sites, I'd like to follow everything fresh you have to post. Could you list all of all your community sites like your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?
    Look at my page : canada goose

    ReplyDelete
  5. I seriously love your website.. Great colors & theme. Did you make this site yourself?
    Please reply back as I'm looking to create my own blog and want to find out where you got this from or exactly what the theme is called. Appreciate it!
    Feel free to surf my weblog ; christian louboutin cork pump

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hey there would you mind letting me know which web host you're working with? I've loaded your blog in 3 different
    internet browsers and I must say this blog loads a lot quicker then most.
    Can you suggest a good web hosting provider at a reasonable price?
    Many thanks, I appreciate it!
    Look at my homepage :: canada goose jacket sale

    ReplyDelete
  7. A person essentially assist to make severely posts I
    might state. This is the first time I frequented your
    web page and up to now? I amazed with the analysis you made to make this particular publish extraordinary.
    Excellent process!
    my web site > 2012 nike nfl jerseys

    ReplyDelete
  8. bookmarked!!, I like your website!
    Take a look at my blog - sex.facehoster.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. I've been surfing online more than three hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.
    Also visit my web-site :: canada goose jacket sale

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hi there, just wanted to say, I liked this article. It was inspiring.
    Keep on posting!
    Also see my page - custom nfl jerseys

    ReplyDelete
  11. Normally I do not read post on blogs, but I would like to say that
    this write-up very pressured me to try and do it! Your writing
    taste has been amazed me. Thank you, quite great article.
    My site ... http://www.cheapchirstianlouboutinshoes.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. Hi i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read this article i thought i could also make comment due to
    this brilliant article.

    My weblog: レイバンサングラス

    ReplyDelete
  13. I truly love your blog.. Great colors & theme.
    Did you create this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I'm planning to create my very own website and would love to know where you got this from or exactly what the theme is named. Appreciate it!

    My blog ロレックスコピー時計

    ReplyDelete
  14. Woah! I'm really digging the template/theme of this site. It's simple, yet effective.

    A lot of times it's very hard to get that "perfect balance" between superb usability and visual appeal. I must say you've done a very good job with this.
    Also, the blog loads extremely quick for me on Safari. Exceptional Blog!


    my web site ... ロレックスレプリカ

    ReplyDelete
  15. This is a great tip particularly to those new to the blogosphere.
    Brief but very precise info… Many thanks for sharing this one.
    A must read post!

    My website; rolexスーパーコピー

    ReplyDelete
  16. whoah this blog is great i really like reading your articles.

    Keep up the good work! You realize, lots of persons are looking
    round for this information, you could aid them greatly.


    My web-site ... http://www.cd-giarre1.it/modules.php?name=Your_Account&op=userinfo&username=CliftonGa

    ReplyDelete
  17. Hello there! I could have sworn I've visited this website before but after going through some of the articles I realized it's new to me.
    Anyways, I'm certainly happy I came across it and I'll be bookmarking it and checking back regularly!


    Stop by my web-site :: サングラス オークリー

    ReplyDelete
  18. Great post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed!
    Very useful information specifically the last part :
    ) I care for such info much. I was looking for this particular info for a very long time.
    Thank you and good luck.

    Also visit my web page オークリーメガネ

    ReplyDelete
  19. Wow, superb blog layout! How long have you been blogging for?
    you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your web site is great,
    as well as the content!

    Also visit my blog post; オークリー サングラス通販

    ReplyDelete
  20. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to
    make your point. You definitely know what youre talking about, why
    waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something enlightening to read?



    Here is my web page - cheap nike air max 90

    ReplyDelete
  21. Hi, I do believe this is an excellent site. I stumbledupon it ;) I'm going to revisit yet again since I book marked it. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.

    Also visit my web page: Nike Free Run

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hi there, after reading this awesome article i am also glad to
    share my knowledge here with colleagues.

    My site :: オークリー ゴーグル

    ReplyDelete
  23. I'm no longer positive the place you're getting your info, however great
    topic. I must spend a while studying much more
    or working out more. Thank you for magnificent info I used to be looking
    for this info for my mission.

    my weblog: サングラスレイバン

    ReplyDelete
  24. Quality content is the key to interest the users to pay
    a quick visit the web page, that's what this web page is providing.

    Feel free to visit my page; 激安オークリー

    ReplyDelete
  25. Nice blog here! Also your site loads up fast!
    What host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my website loaded up as fast as yours lol

    my web site :: シャネル バッグ

    ReplyDelete
  26. It's an awesome post in support of all the online visitors; they will obtain advantage from it I am sure.

    Feel free to surf to my website; http://stratford.com.mx

    ReplyDelete
  27. My developer is trying to convince me to move to .
    net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses.
    But he's tryiong none the less. I've been using WordPress on several websites for about a year
    and am anxious about switching to another platform.
    I have heard excellent things about blogengine.

    net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress posts into it?

    Any help would be greatly appreciated!

    my homepage; オークリー サングラス

    ReplyDelete
  28. Please let me know if you're looking for a writer for your weblog. You have some really great posts and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd really like to write some
    articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
    Please send me an e-mail if interested. Thanks!


    Here is my homepage; Cheap Christian Louboutin
    Also see my web page :: Cheap Christian Louboutin Shoes

    ReplyDelete
  29. Many celebrities are already fascinated with all the retro looks of
    for the reason that, for example, Oprah, Paris Hilton, Pamela
    Anderson and Kate Hudson etc. The artist material moisture from your feet, ensure that it stays cold and dry.
    What most are finding are imitation, fake UGG Boots.


    Feel free to visit my web site :: コーチ 財布

    ReplyDelete
  30. This website truly has all the information and facts I needed concerning this subject and didn't know who to ask.

    Here is my web page ... レイバン

    ReplyDelete
  31. Have you ever thought about creating an e-book or
    guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog based upon on the same ideas
    you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information.
    I know my visitors would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an e-mail.


    Here is my homepage; オークリー サングラス

    ReplyDelete
  32. Great goods from you, man. I have understand your stuff previous to and you're just extremely wonderful. I really like what you've acquired here,
    really like what you are saying and the way in which you
    say it. You make it entertaining and you still care for to keep it smart.
    I can't wait to read far more from you. This is actually a terrific web site.

    Here is my weblog :: レイバンサングラス

    ReplyDelete
  33. I was wondering if you ever thought of changing the layout of
    your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could
    connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or 2 pictures.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

    my blog post - サングラス オークリー

    ReplyDelete
  34. Good day! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be okay. I'm
    undoubtedly enjoying your blog and look forward to new updates.


    Feel free to surf to my web-site :: ray ban australia

    ReplyDelete
  35. I seriously love your site.. Great colors & theme. Did you make this website
    yourself? Please reply back as I'm hoping to create my own website and want to know where you got this from or exactly what the theme is named. Thanks!

    Look into my blog post; Fake Ray Bans

    ReplyDelete
  36. Magnificent site. Lots of helpful info here.
    I am sending it to some buddies ans also sharing in delicious.
    And obviously, thanks on your sweat!

    Also visit my web page :: louboutin boots

    ReplyDelete
  37. Excellent site. Plenty of helpful info here. I'm sending it to some friends ans additionally sharing in delicious. And of course, thanks on your sweat!

    My webpage www.weetings.com

    ReplyDelete
  38. Hi, I think your blog might be having browser
    compatibility issues. When I look at your blog in Safari,
    it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some
    overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads up!
    Other then that, great blog!

    My homepage :: fake ray bans

    ReplyDelete
  39. Very rapidly this site will be famous amid all blogging visitors, due to it's fastidious posts

    Here is my blog: Air Max Pas Chernike air max 2012

    ReplyDelete
  40. Does your site have a contact page? I'm having problems locating it but, I'd like to send you an email.
    I've got some ideas for your blog you might be interested in hearing. Either way, great site and I look forward to seeing it grow over time.

    My weblog - Cheap Jerseys Free Shippingwholesale beads

    ReplyDelete
  41. Hey There. I found your blog using msn. That is a very well written
    article. I will make sure to bookmark it and return to learn extra of your useful info.
    Thanks for the post. I will definitely comeback.

    Check out my web site: Air Max Pas Chernike air max

    ReplyDelete
  42. Its not my first time to pay a visit this web page, i am browsing
    this website dailly and take good information from here everyday.



    Here is my weblog - Air Jordan Pas Chermichael jordan biography

    ReplyDelete
  43. I have read so many posts concerning the blogger lovers
    except this piece of writing is genuinely
    a fastidious piece of writing, keep it up.

    my site - Nike Air Jordanjordan spizikes

    ReplyDelete
  44. Good replies in return of this matter with real arguments and explaining the whole thing about that.


    my webpage :: Air Jordan Pas Cherair jordan concord

    ReplyDelete
  45. As the admin of this web site is working, no doubt very shortly it will be famous, due to its feature contents.


    Feel free to surf to my homepage - air max 90 pas cherNike Air Max

    ReplyDelete
  46. My brother recommended I might like this web site.
    He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. You can not imagine just how
    much time I had spent for this info! Thanks!

    Feel free to surf to my web page: コーチ

    ReplyDelete
  47. An intriguing discussion is worth comment. I do believe that you should write more about this subject matter, it might not be a taboo matter but usually
    people do not speak about such subjects. To the next!

    Many thanks!!

    Also visit my web-site :: ミュウミュウ

    ReplyDelete
  48. There is certainly a lot to find out about this topic. I like all the points you made.


    my blog ミュウミュウ靴

    ReplyDelete
  49. Awesome! Its actually amazing piece of writing,
    I have got much clear idea on the topic of from this post.



    my blog post; オークリー

    ReplyDelete
  50. What's Taking place i'm new to this, I stumbled upon this I have found It absolutely useful and it has helped
    me out loads. I'm hoping to give a contribution & aid other users like its helped me. Great job.

    My webpage Abercrombie Fitch Pas Cher

    ReplyDelete
  51. An impressive share! I have just forwarded this onto a coworker who was conducting a little research on this.
    And he actually bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for
    him... lol. So let me reword this.... Thanks for the meal!
    ! But yeah, thanx for spending the time to discuss this topic here on your website.



    My site: Gucci Scarpe

    ReplyDelete
  52. It's hard to come by educated people about this subject, but you sound like you know what you're talking about!
    Thanks

    My blog: Nike air jordan

    ReplyDelete
  53. Hello there, I found your web site by means of Google whilst looking for a similar matter, your web site got here up,
    it looks good. I've bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.
    Hi there, just was aware of your weblog through Google, and found that it is really informative. I'm gonna watch out for brussels.

    I will be grateful if you continue this in future.
    Numerous other people will likely be benefited out
    of your writing. Cheers!

    Have a look at my website ... cooperativehabitation.coop

    ReplyDelete
  54. What's up i am kavin, its my first time to commenting anyplace, when i read this post i thought i could also make comment due to this sensible piece of writing.

    My site ... Michael Kors Canada

    ReplyDelete
  55. I couldn't resist commenting. Well written!

    Here is my weblog - Abercrombie and Fitch

    ReplyDelete
  56. Appreciate this post. Let me try it out.

    Here is my web page: www.officielairmaxsolde.com

    ReplyDelete
  57. I rarely leave a response, but after browsing through a bunch of comments here "Asumsi dalam Ilmu (Ontologi Filsafat Ilmu bag 3)".
    I do have a few questions for you if you don't mind. Is it only me or do a few of the comments look like they are coming from brain dead folks? :-P And, if you are posting on additional sites, I'd like
    to follow you. Would you post a list of the complete urls of your
    social networking pages like your linkedin profile, Facebook page
    or twitter feed?

    Also visit my web page Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags

    ReplyDelete
  58. If you desire to take a great deal from this post then you have
    to apply such methods to your won weblog.

    My web blog - http://www.abercrombiebe.com/

    ReplyDelete
  59. My partner and I stumbled over here different website and
    thought I may as well check things out. I like what I see so now i'm following you. Look forward to looking into your web page repeatedly.

    Look at my page :: Evgeni Malkin Authentic Jersey

    ReplyDelete
  60. Amazing! This blog looks exactly like my old one!
    It's on a completely different topic but it has pretty much the same layout and design. Outstanding choice of colors!

    Here is my web page - Converse All Star

    ReplyDelete
  61. You really make it appear so easy along with your presentation
    but I find this topic to be actually one thing that I feel I'd by no means understand. It sort of feels too complex and extremely wide for me. I am taking a look ahead on your subsequent post, I will attempt to get the hang of it!

    Stop by my webpage; Authentic Mario Lemieux Jersey

    ReplyDelete
  62. Hi, i believe that i noticed you visited my site thus i got
    here to return the favor?.I'm attempting to in finding things to improve my site!I assume its good enough to use some of your concepts!!

    Look into my web site ... Kris Letang Black Jersey

    ReplyDelete
  63. Nice post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am inspired!
    Extremely useful information specifically the remaining part :) I handle such info much.
    I used to be seeking this certain info for a very long time.
    Thank you and good luck.

    my homepage; www.abercrombieandfitchbe.com

    ReplyDelete
  64. Its like you read my mind! You appear to know so much about this, like you wrote the
    book in it or something. I think that you could do with some pics to drive
    the message home a little bit, but instead of that, this is
    fantastic blog. A great read. I'll certainly be back.

    Also visit my weblog ray ban outlet

    ReplyDelete
  65. Touche. Solid arguments. Keep up the amazing work.

    my web blog - Cheap NFL Jerseys

    ReplyDelete
  66. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your articles?
    I mean, what you say is fundamental and all. However think about if you added some great visuals or videos to give
    your posts more, "pop"! Your content is excellent but with pics and video clips, this site could certainly be one of the greatest in
    its field. Fantastic blog!

    Feel free to surf to my web blog; http://www.wheelhousebikes.com

    ReplyDelete
  67. I think this is one of the most significant info for me.
    And i'm glad reading your article. But should remark on some general things, The site style is ideal, the articles is really excellent : D. Good job, cheers

    Also visit my web page discount oakley sunglasses

    ReplyDelete
  68. Link exchange is nothing else except it is simply placing the
    other person's webpage link on your page at appropriate place and other person will also do similar in support of you.

    my website; Serwis klimatyzacji

    ReplyDelete
  69. Hello, everything is going perfectly here and ofcourse every one is sharing information, that's genuinely fine, keep up writing.

    My homepage: cheap nike air max

    ReplyDelete
  70. Wow, wonderful blog structure! How long have you been
    running a blog for? you make running a blog
    glance easy. The overall look of your website is wonderful,
    as smartly as the content!

    my web blog: Michael kors Outlet

    ReplyDelete
  71. Keep on working, great job!

    my web blog monster beats

    ReplyDelete
  72. Please let me know if you're looking for a author for your blog. You have some really good articles and I feel I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd absolutely love to
    write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
    Please send me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

    Feel free to surf to my web-site ... ジョーダン

    ReplyDelete
  73. A motivating discussion is definitely worth
    comment. I do believe that you ought to write more on this
    issue, it may not be a taboo matter but typically
    folks don't discuss these topics. To the next! Kind regards!!

    My weblog :: モンスタービーツ

    ReplyDelete
  74. A motivating discussion is worth comment. I
    do think that you should publish more on this subject, it may not
    be a taboo matter but typically people do not speak about such
    subjects. To the next! Kind regards!!

    my site - Louis Vuitton Pas Cher

    ReplyDelete
  75. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles.
    I'll bookmark your weblog and check again here regularly. I am quite certain I will learn many new stuff right here! Good luck for the next!

    Here is my website ... klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  76. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though
    you relied on the video to make your point. You clearly know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your site
    when you could be giving us something informative to read?


    Feel free to surf to my blog :: Air Jordan

    ReplyDelete
  77. There's definately a lot to know about this subject. I really like all of the points you've made.


    Feel free to visit my web page - klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  78. Thank you for any other great post. The place else may just anybody get that type of
    info in such a perfect means of writing? I've a presentation next week, and I'm at the look for such info.



    My website ... klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  79. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just
    your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and everything.
    Nevertheless think of if you added some great
    graphics or videos to give your posts more, "pop"!
    Your content is excellent but with pics and videos, this website could undeniably be one
    of the greatest in its niche. Fantastic blog!

    Feel free to visit my site: klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  80. I go to see each day some blogs and blogs to read articles, except this web site gives quality based articles.


    Also visit my page ... klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  81. Its like you learn my thoughts! You appear
    to understand a lot approximately this, such
    as you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you simply
    can do with a few percent to drive the message home a little bit, however instead
    of that, this is great blog. An excellent read.
    I will definitely be back.

    Feel free to surf to my webpage ... Wholesale NFL Jerseys

    ReplyDelete
  82. What's up colleagues, how is the whole thing, and what you want to say about this post, in my view its in fact remarkable in support of me.

    Feel free to surf to my website ... klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  83. If you wish for to increase your knowledge just keep visiting this web
    page and be updated with the most up-to-date news update posted here.


    Have a look at my page klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  84. Please let me know if you're looking for a article author for your weblog. You have some really great posts and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd love to write some articles for your
    blog in exchange for a link back to mine.
    Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Kudos!


    my weblog :: klimatyzacja

    ReplyDelete
  85. This text is invaluable. How can I find out more?

    my web blog; NFL Jerseys Cheap

    ReplyDelete
  86. Greetings! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I truly enjoy reading through your posts.

    Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same subjects?

    Many thanks!

    Also visit my page cheap christian louboutin shoes

    ReplyDelete
  87. If some one needs expert view about blogging and site-building then i
    recommend him/her to pay a visit this weblog, Keep
    up the good work.

    Feel free to visit my homepage ... Michael Kors Canada

    ReplyDelete
  88. I would like to thank you for the efforts you've put in writing this blog. I'm hoping to see
    the same high-grade content by you later on as well. In fact, your creative
    writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own website now ;)

    Look into my web page: Cheap Oakleys

    ReplyDelete
  89. I every time emailed this website post page to all my contacts, since if like to
    read it then my contacts will too.

    Stop by my weblog - polo ralph lauren sale

    ReplyDelete
  90. Howdy! I simply wish to give a huge thumbs up for
    the great information you have here on this post.
    I shall be coming back to your blog for more soon.


    Also visit my website :: elfie semotan

    ReplyDelete
  91. Good day! I just would like to give an enormous thumbs up for the good info you may
    have here on this post. I shall be coming back to your blog
    for more soon.

    my web blog; cuando es semana santa 2013 en espana

    ReplyDelete
  92. I know this if off topic but I'm looking into starting my own weblog and was wondering what all is needed to get set up? I'm assuming having a blog like yours would cost a pretty penny?
    I'm not very internet smart so I'm not 100% sure.
    Any tips or advice would be greatly appreciated. Kudos

    Also visit my website ... related site

    ReplyDelete
  93. Hi! Would you mind if I share your blog with
    my myspace group? There's a lot of people that I think would really appreciate your content. Please let me know. Thanks

    Feel free to visit my web site ... Nike Free 7.0

    ReplyDelete
  94. Hi there! I just wish to give a huge thumbs up for the good info you might have here on this post.
    I will probably be coming again to your blog for more soon.


    Feel free to visit my blog; semoran skateway coupons

    ReplyDelete
  95. I was able to find good advice from your blog posts.


    my web site - Bonuses

    ReplyDelete
  96. I'm amazed, I have to admit. Rarely do I come across a blog that's both equally educative and engaging,
    and without a doubt, you have hit the nail on the head. The issue is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about.
    Now i'm very happy that I stumbled across this during my hunt for something concerning this.

    Here is my weblog - Read This

    ReplyDelete
  97. Awesome post.

    Also visit my blog post ... Louis Vuitton Pas Cher **

    ReplyDelete
  98. When I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added
    I recieve 4 emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a way
    you are able to remove me from that service? Kudos!


    Feel free to surf to my web page: link ()

    ReplyDelete
  99. Thanks , I've recently been looking for information about this subject for a long time and yours is the best I've
    found out till now. But, what in regards to the conclusion?

    Are you positive in regards to the supply?

    Visit my web site ... more (http://wikisailing.org/sv/index.php/Anv%C3%A4ndare:RodolfoKi)

    ReplyDelete
  100. This web site truly has all of the information and facts
    I wanted about this subject and didn't know who to ask.

    Here is my page; abercrombie pas Cher

    ReplyDelete
  101. Thank you, I've just been looking for info approximately this subject for a long time and yours is the greatest I have came upon till now. However, what about the conclusion? Are you sure concerning the source?

    my page Boutique Guess

    ReplyDelete
  102. I have read so many articles or reviews regarding the blogger lovers except this piece of writing is truly a fastidious post, keep it up.


    Here is my web page - Nike Air Max

    ReplyDelete
  103. I think the admin of this web site is genuinely working hard in support of his website, because here
    every information is quality based material.

    Feel free to surf to my blog post ... Cheap NFL Jerseys

    ReplyDelete
  104. I really like reading through a post that will make men and women think.
    Also, many thanks for allowing for me to comment!

    my web-site Beats Pas Cher

    ReplyDelete
  105. I almost never leave a response, but i did
    a few searching and wound up here "Asumsi dalam Ilmu (Ontologi Filsafat Ilmu bag 3)".

    And I actually do have 2 questions for you if it's allright. Is it only me or does it give the impression like a few of these remarks appear like written by brain dead folks? :-P And, if you are writing on other sites, I would like to keep up with anything fresh you have to post. Would you make a list of every one of all your public sites like your Facebook page, twitter feed, or linkedin profile?

    Feel free to surf to my page; Cheap NFL Jerseys *overuc.com*

    ReplyDelete
  106. I was curious if you ever considered changing the page layout of
    your site? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say.
    But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with
    it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having 1 or 2 images.
    Maybe you could space it out better?

    Visit my homepage: Louis Vuitton Purses

    ReplyDelete
  107. I've been exploring for a little bit for any high quality articles or blog posts in this sort of area . Exploring in Yahoo I finally stumbled upon this web site. Reading this information So i'm glad to convey that I've a very just right uncanny feeling I discovered just what I needed. I so much definitely will make sure to don?t forget this website and give it a look regularly.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog; NFL Jerseys Cheap

    ReplyDelete
  108. I enjoy looking through a post that will make people think.
    Also, thanks for permitting me to comment!

    Feel free to visit my blog: Nike Trainers

    ReplyDelete
  109. Hi, I do think this is a great blog. I stumbledupon it ;)
    I am going to revisit once again since I book-marked it.
    Money and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich
    and continue to guide other people.

    My page: Louis Vuitton Pas Cher :: ::

    ReplyDelete
  110. hello!,I really like your writing so much! proportion we be
    in contact extra approximately your article
    on AOL? I need an expert in this area to unravel my problem.
    May be that's you! Having a look forward to look you.

    Also visit my weblog - Nike Free Tilbud

    ReplyDelete
  111. It's remarkable to pay a quick visit this web page and reading the views of all friends concerning this article, while I am also zealous of getting knowledge.

    Feel free to surf to my web site :: Louis Vuitton Bags

    ReplyDelete
  112. Fantastic beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your website, how can
    i subscribe for a blog site? The account aided me a acceptable
    deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast
    offered bright clear idea

    Review my web blog Michael Kors :: :
    :

    ReplyDelete
  113. Touche. Sound arguments. Keep up the great spirit.


    Also visit my blog Nike Air Max

    ReplyDelete
  114. Great web site you have here.. It's difficult to find quality writing like yours these days. I honestly appreciate individuals like you! Take care!!

    My website continue reading ()

    ReplyDelete
  115. Thanks very interesting blog!

    Feel free to surf to my homepage: New Kobe Bryant Shoes

    ReplyDelete
  116. What's up, after reading this remarkable paragraph i am too delighted to share my experience here with mates.

    my web blog - Christian Louboutin Heels

    ReplyDelete
  117. I know this site presents quality depending content and
    extra information, is there any other website which
    offers these kinds of data in quality?

    Here is my site LeBron James 10 Shoes (nysacpr.org)

    ReplyDelete
  118. Hi, every time i used to check webpage posts here early in the break of day, as
    i like to find out more and more.

    Review my web page ... Oakley Sunglasses Cheap

    ReplyDelete
  119. Hi, just wanted to say, I loved this blog post.

    It was inspiring. Keep on posting!

    My weblog: Louis Vuitton Outlet

    ReplyDelete
  120. Hello there! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be ok. I'm absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new posts.


    Here is my page Read This (myhomecarers.my)

    ReplyDelete

Silakan tinggalkan komentar Anda

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...