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Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Asumsi dalam Ilmu (Ontologi Filsafat Ilmu bag 3)

by dwining bintarawati


Asumsi dalam Ilmu

Waktu kecil segalanya kelihatan besar, pohon terasa begitu tinggi, orang-orang tampak seperti raksasa Pandangan itu berubah setelah kita berangkat dewasa, dunia ternyata tidak sebesar yang kita kira, wujud yang penuh dengan misteri ternyata hanya begitu saja. Kesemestaan pun menciut, bahkan dunia bisa sebesar daun kelor, bagi orang yang putus asa.
Katakanlah kita sekarang sedang mempelajari ilmu ukur bidang datar (planimetri). Dengan ilmu itu kita membuat kontruksi kayu bagi atap rumah kita. Sekarang dalam bidang datar yang sama bayangkan para amuba mau bikin rumah juga. Bagi amuba bidang datar itu tidak rata dan mulus melainkan bergelombang, penuh dengan lekukan yang kurang mempesona. Permukaan yang rata berubah menjadi kumpulan berjuta kurva.

Asumsi dan Skala Observasi
Mengapa terdapat perbedaan pandangan yang nyata terhadap obyek yang begitu kongkret sperti sebuah bidang? Ahli fisika Swiss Charles-Eugene Guye menyimpulkan gejala itu diciptakan oleh skala observasi. Bagi skala observasi anak kecil pohon-pohon natal itu begitu gigantik, sedangkan bagi skala observasi amuba, bidang datar ini merupakan daerah pemukiman yang berbukit-bukit.
Jadi secara mutlak sebenarnya tak ada yang tahu seperti apa sebenarnya bidang datar itu. hanya Tuhan yang tahu! Secara filsafati mungkin ini merupakan masalah besar namun bagi ilmu masalah ini didekati secara praktis. Seperti disebutkan terdahulu ilmu sekadar merupakan pengetahuan yang mempunyai kegunaan praktis yang dapat membantu kehidupan manusia secara pragmatis. Dengan demikian maka untuk tujuan membangun atap rumah, sekiranya kita asumsikan bahwa permukaan papan itu adalah bidang datar, maka secara pragmatis hal ini dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.

Asumsi dalam Matematika dan Ilmu Alam
Marilah kita lihat ilmu yang termasuk paling maju dibandingkan dengan ilmu-ilmu lainnya yakni fisika. Fisika merupakan ilmu teoretis yang dibangun di atas sistem penalaran deduktif yang meyakinkan serta pembuktian induktif yang sangat mengesankan. Namun sering dilupakan orang bahwa fisika pun belum merupakan suatu konsep yang utuh. Artinya fisika belum merupakan pengetahuan ilmiah yang tersusun secara sistemik, sistematik, konsisten, dan analitik berdasarkan pernyataan-pernyataan ilmiah yang disepakati bersama. Di mana terdapat celah-celah perbedaan dalam fisika? Perbedaannya justru terletak dalam fondasi di mana dibangun teori ilmiah di atasnya yakni dalam asumsi tentang dunia fisiknya.




Dalam analisis secara mekanistik maka terdapat empat komponen analisis utama yakni zat, gerak, ruang, dan waktu. Newton dalam bukunya Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1686) berasumsi bahwa keempat komponen ini bersifat absolut. Zat bersifat absolut dan dengan demikian berbeda secara substantif dengan energi. Einstein, berlainan dengan Newton, dalam The Special Theory of Relativity (1905) berasumsi bahwa keempat komponen itu bersifat relatif. Tidak mungkin kita mengukur gerak secara absolut, kata Einstein. Bahkan zat sendiri itu pun tidak mutlak, hanya bentuk lain dari energi, dengan rumus yang termasyhur :
E = mc2
Sekiranya ilmu mencari teori-teori ilmiah yang secara praktis, umpamanya dapat kita pakai untuk membangun rumah maka mekanika klasik dari Newton sudah jauh dari cukup. Demikian juga halnya dengan ilmu ukur yang kita pakai untuk pengukuran dalam mekanika klasik yakni ilmu ukur Euclid. Ilmu ukur yang dikembangkan oleh euclid (330-275 S.M) kurang lebih dua ribu tahun yang lalu itu ternyata sampai sekarang masih memenuhi syarat. Namun sekiranya dalam kurun yang ditandai krisis energi ini, kita ingin berpaling dari sumber energi konvensional yakni air, angin, panas (bumi dan matahari) serta fosil kepada energi nuklir, maka tentu saja kita harus berpaling kepada teori relativitas Einstein; sebab menurut teori ini kebutuhan listrik dunia selama sebulan dapat dipenuhi hanya dengan konversi 5 kg zat. Untuk analisis keempat komponen yang bersifat relatif ini maka ilmu ukur Euclid tidak lagi memenuhi syarat dan kita berpaling kepada ilmu ukur non-Euclid yang dikembangkan oleh Lobacevskii (1773-1856), Bolyai (1802-1860) dan Riemann (1823-1866).

Jadi di sini kita mengadakan asumsi lagi bahwa untuk membangun rumah, ilmu ukur Euclid dianggap memenuhi syarat untuk dipergunakan. Sedangkan bagi amuba yang harus membangun rumah rumah pada permukaan yang bergelombang, hal ini tidak demikian. Sifat serta bentuk ruang-waktu sangat berbeda dengan ilmu ukur yang diajarkan Euclides. Sehingga sebaiknya mereka memakai ilmu ukur ruang-waktu yakni ilmu ukur non-Euclid (non-eucledian geometry) .

Pada awalnya kausalitas dalam ilmu-ilmu alam menggunakan asumsi determinisme. Namun asumsi ini goyang ketika MaxPlanck pada tahun 1900 menemukan teori Quantum. Teori ini menyatakan bahwa radiasi yang dikeluarkan materi tidak berlangsung secara konstan namun terpisah-pisah yang dinamakan kuanta. Fisika quantum menunjukkan adanya partikel-partikel yang melanggar logika hukum fisika dan bergerak secara tak terduga
Selanjutnya Indeterministik dalam gejala fisik ini muncul dengan pemenuhan Niels Bohr dalam Prinsip Komplementer (Principle of Complementary) yang dipublikasikan pada tahun 1913. Prinsip komplementer ini menyatakan bahwa elektron bisa berupa gelombang cahaya dan bisa juga berupa partikel tergantung dari konteksnya. Masalah ini yang menggoyahkan sensi-sendi fisika ditambah lagi dengan penemuan Prinsip Indeterministik (Principle of Indeterminancy) oleh Werner Heisenberg pada tahun 1927. Heisenberg menyatakan bahwa untuk pasangan besaran tertentu yang disebut conjugate magnitude pada prinsipnya tidak mungkin mengukur kedua besaran tersebut pada waktu yang sama dengan ketelitian yang tinggi. Prinsip Indeterministik ini, kata William Barret, menunjukkan bahwa terdapat limit dalam kemampuan manusia untuk mengetahui dan meramalkan gejala-gejala fisik.

Asumsi Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial
Masalah asumsi ini menjadi lebih rumit lagi kalau kita berbicara tentang ilmu-ilmu sosial. Masing-masing ilmu sosial mempunya berbagai asumsi mengenai manusia.
Siapa sebenarnya manusia? Jawabnya tergantung kepada situasinya : dalam kegiatan ekonomis maka dia makhluk ekonomi, dalam politik maka dia political animal, dalam pendidikan dia homo educandum. Dan kotak-kotak manusia makin lama makin banyak dan makin sempit.
Apakah kita perlu membuat kotak-kotak ini dan memberikan pembatasan dalam bentuk asumsi yang kian sempit ? Sekiranya ilmu ingin mendapatkan pengetahuan yang bersifat analitis, yang mampu menjelaskan berbagai kaitan dalam gejala yang tertangguk dalam pengalaman manusia, maka pembatasan ini adalah perlu. Suatu permasalahan kehidupan manusia tidak bisa dianalisis secara cermat dan seksama hanya oleh satu disiplin keilmuan saja. Masalah yang rumit ini, seperti juga rumitnya kehidupan yang dihadapi manusia, harus dilihat sepotong-sepotong dan selangkah demi selangkah. Berbagai disiplin keilmuan, dengan asumsinya masing-masing tentang manusia, mencoba mendekati permasalahan itu dari berbagai segi : psikologis, sosiologis, hiburan, pertamanan. Ilmu-ilmu ini bersifat otonom dalam bidang pengkajiannya masing-masing dan “berfederasi” dalam suatu pendekatan multidisipliner. (jadi buka “fusi” dengan penggabungan asumsi yang kacau balau).
Hal – hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam pengembangan asumsi
1. Asumsi ini harus relevan dengan bidang dan tujuan pengkajian disipin keilmuan.
Asumsi ini harus operasional dan merupakan dasar bagi pengkajian teoretis.. Asumsi manusia dalam administrasi yang bersifat operasional adalah makhluk ekonomis, makhluk sosial, makhluk aktualisasi diri atau makhluk yang kompleks. Berdasarkan asumsi-asumsi ini maka dapat dikembangkan berbagai model, strategi, dan praktek administrasi.
2. Kedua, asumsi ini harus disimpulkan dari ‘keadaan sebagaimana adanya’ bukan ‘bagaimana keadaan yang seharusnya’.
Sekiranya dalam kegiatan ekonomis maka manusia yang berperan adalah manusia ‘yang mencari keuntungan sebesar-besarnya dengan pengorbanan sekecil-kecilnya’ maka itu sajalah yang kita jadikan sebagai pegangan tidak usah ditambah dengan sebaiknya begini, atau seharusnya begitu. Sekiranya asumsi semacam ini dipakai dalam penyusunan kebijaksanaan (policy), atau strategi, serta penjabaran peraturan alinnya, maka hal ini bisa saja dilakukan, asalkan semua itu membantu kita dalam menganalisis permasalahan. Namun penetapan asumsi yang berdasarkan keadaan yang seharusnya ini seyogyanya tidak dilakukan dalam analisis teori keilmuan sebab metafisika keilmuan berdasarkan kenyataan sesungguhnya sebagaimana adanya.
Seseorang ilmuwan harus benar-benar mengenal asumsi yang dipergunakan dalam analisis keilmuannya, sebab mempergunakan asumsi yang berbeda, maka berarti berbeda pula konsep pemikiran yang dipergunakan. Sesuatu yang belum tersurat (atau terucap) dianggap belum diketahui atau belum mendapat kesamaan pendapat.


Batas Penjelajahan Ilmu
Apakah batas yang merupakan lingkup penjelajahan ilmu? Apakah yang menjadi karakteristik obyek ontologis ilmu yang membedakan ilmu dari pengetahuan-pengetahuan yang lainnya? Jawab dari semua pertanyaan itu adalah sangat sederhana : ilmu memulai penjelajahannnya pada pengalaman manusia dan berhenti di batas pengalaman manusia. Apakah ilmu mempelajari hal ihwal surga dan neraka? Jawabnya adalah tidak; sebab surga dan neraka berada di luar jangkauan pengalaman manusia. Baik hal-hal yang terjadi sebelum hidup kita, maupun apa-apa yang terjadi sesudah kematian kita, semua itu berada di luar penjelajahan ilmu.
Mengapa ilmu hanya membatasi daripada hal-hal yang berbeda dalam batas pengalaman kita? jawabnya terletak pada fungsi ilmu itu sendiri dalam kehidupan manusia: yakni sebagai alat pembantu manusia dalam menanggulangi masalah-masalah yang dihadapinya sehari-hari. Persoalan mengenai hari kemudian tidak akan kita nyatakan kepada ilmu, melainkan kepada agama, sebab agamalah pengetahuan yang mengkaji masalah-masalah seperti itu.
Ilmu membatasi lingkup penjelajahannya pada batas pengalaman manusia juga disebabkan metode yang dipergunakan dalam menyusun yang telah teruji kebenarannya secara empiris. Sekiranya ilmu memasukkan daerah di luar batas pengalaman empirisnya, bagaimana kita melakukan pembuktian secara metodologis? bukankah hal ini merupakan suatu kontradiksi yang menghilangkan keahlian metode ilmiah?
Kalau begitu maka sempit sekali batas jelajahan ilmu, kata seorang, Cuma sepotong dari sekian permasalahan kehidupan. Memang demikian, jawab filsuf ilmu, bahkan dalam batas pengalaman manusia pun, ilmu hanya berwenang dalam menentukan benar atau salahnya suatu pernyataan. Tentang baik dan buruk, semua (termasuk ilmu) berpaling kepada sumber-sumber moral; tentang indah dan jelek, semua (termasuk ilmu) berpaling kepada pengkajian estetik. Ilmu tanpa (bimbingan moral) agama adalah buta, demikian kata Einstein.
Mengenal batas-batas kapling kita ini, di samping menunjukkan kematangan keilmuan dan profesional kita, juga dimaksudkan agar kita mengenal tetangga-tetangga kita. Dengan makin sempitnya daerah penjelajahan suatu bidang keilmuan maka sering sekali diperlukan “pandangan” dari disiplin-disiplin lain. Saling pandang-memandang ini, atau dalam bahasa protokolnya pendekatan multi-disipliner, membutuhkan pengetahuan tentang tetangga-tetangga yang berdekatan. Artinya harus jelas bagi semua: di mana disiplin seseorang berhenti dan di mana disiplin orang lain mulai. Tanpa kejelasan batas-batas ini maka pendekatan multidisipliner tidak akan bersifat konstruktif melainkan berubah menjadi sengketa kapling (yang sering terjadi akhir-akhir ini).
Apalagi kalau masalah kapling ini dikaitkan dengan asumsi-asumsi yang dipakai oleh masing-masing disiplin. Sekiranya “x mengasumsikan y” pada kapling orang lain, di mana dalam kapling tersebut berlaku “y mengasumsikan x”, kan semuanya jadi terbalik, bukan? Salah-salah sengketa kapling ini berubah menjadi sengketa asumsi, dimana telah diketahui dalam pembahasan terdahulu, sengketa seperti itu adalah kaliber Newton vs Einstein.

Cabang-cabang ilmu
Ilmu berkembang dengan sangat pesat dan demikian juga jumlah cabang-cabangnya. Hasrat untuk menspesialisasikan diri pada satu bidang telaahan yang memungkinkan analisis yang makin cermat dan saksama menyebabkan obyek forma (objek ontologis) dari disiplin keilmuan menjadi kian terbatas. Diperkirakan sekarang ini terdapat sekitar sekitar 650 cabang keilmuan yang kebanyakan belum dikenal oleh orang-orang awam.
Pada dasarnya cabang-cabang ilmu tersebut berkembang dari dua cabang utama yakni filsafat alam yang kemudian menjadi rumpun ilmu-ilmu alam (the natural sciences) dan filsafat moral yang kemudian berkembang ke dalam cabang ilmu-ilmu sosial (the social sciences). Ilmu-ilmu alam membagi diri kepada dua kelompok lagi yakni ilmu alam (physical sciences) dan ilmu hayat (the biological sciences). Ilmu alam bertujuan mempelajari zat yang membentuk alam semesta sedangkan alam kemudian bercabang lagi menjadi fisika (mempelajari massa dan energi), kimia (mempelajari substansi zat), astronomi (mempelajari benda-benda langit) dan ilmu bumi (atau the earth science yang mempelajari bumi kita ini).
Tiap-tiap cabang kemudian membikin ranting-ranting baru seperti fisika berkembang menjadi mekanika,hidrodinamika, bunyi, cahaya, panas, kelistrikan dan magnetisme, fisika nuklir dan kimia fisik. Sampai tahap ini maka kelompok ilmu ini termasuk ke dalam ilmu-ilmu murni. Ilmu-ilmu murni kemudian berkembang menjadi ilmu-ilmu terapan seperti contoh di bawah ini :

ILMU MURNI ILMU TERAPAN
Mekanika Mekanika Teknik
Hidrodinamika Teknik Aeronautikal/Teknik & Desain Kapal
Bunyi Teknik Akustik
Cahaya & Optik Teknik Iluminasi
Kelistrikan Teknik Elektronik/
Magnetisme Teknik Kelistrikan
Fisika Nuklir Teknik Nuklir
Cabang-cabang ini berkembang menjadi banyak sekali; kimia saja, umpamanya, mempunyai sekitar 150 disiplin.
Ilmu-ilmu sosial berkembang agak lambat dibandingkan dengan ilmu-ilmu alam. Pada pokoknya terdapat cabang utama ilmu-ilmu sosial yakni antropologi (mempelajari manusia dalam perspektif waktu dan tempat), psikologi (mempelajari proses mental dan kelakuan manusia), ekonomi (mempelajari manusia dalam memenuhi kebutuhan kehidupannya lewat proses pertukaran), sosiologi (mempelajari sistem dan proses dalam kehidupan manusia berpemerintahan dan bernegara).
Cabang utama ilmu-ilmu sosial ini kemudian mempunyai cabang-cabang lagi seperti umpamanya antropologi terpecah menjadi lima yakni arkeologi, antropologi fisik, etnologi, dan antropologi sosial/kultural. Dari ilmu-ilmu tersebut di atas yang dapat kita golongkan ke dalam ilmu murni meskipun tidak sepenuhnya, berkembang ilmu sosial terapan yang merupakan aplikasi berbagai konsep dari ilmu-ilmu sosial murni kepada suatu bidang telaahan sosial tertentu. Pendidikan, umpamanya merupakan ilmu sosial terapan yang mengaplikasikan konsep-konsep dari psikologi, antropologi, dan sosiologi. Demikian juga manajemen menerapkan konsep psikologi, ekonomi, antropologi, dan sosiologi.
Disamping ilmu-ilmu alam dan ilmu sosial, pengetahuan mencakup juga humaniora dan matematika. Humaniora terdiri dari seni, filsafat, agama, bahasa, dan sejarah. Sejarah kadang-kadang dimasukkan juga kedalam ilmu-ilmu sosial dan merupakan kontroversi yang berkepanjangan apakah sejarah itu ilmu ataukah humaniora. Keberatan belakangan mengenai dimasukkannya sejarah ke dalam kelompok ilmu-ilmu sosial terletak pada penggunaan data-data sejarah yang sering kali merupakan penuturan orang.
Matematika bukan merupakan ilmu, melainkan cara berpikir deduktif. Matematika merupakan sarana berpikir yang penting sekali dalam kegiatan berbagai disiplin keilmuan. Termasuk kepada kelompok pengetahuan yang sudah tua umurnya dan paling pertama berkembang.


DAFTAR PUSTAKA


Kattsoff, Louis O. Pengantar Filsafat, penerjemah Seojono Soemargono ,Tiara Wacana, Yogyakarta 1995.
Suriasumantri, Jujun, Filsafat Ilmu: Sebuah Pengantar Populer, PT Pancaraintan Indahgraha, Jakarta, 2007
Suriasumantri Jujun (editor), Ilmu dalam Perspektif, PT. Gramedia, Jakarta, 2007.
__________________________, Pedoman Penulisan Tesis dan Disertasi, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 2010.
_____________________. Menguak Cakrawala Keilmuan. 2010. Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 2010

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